Lipids are a fundamental component for the human body, representing an important source of energy and contributing to the normal functioning of cells. There are essentially two types of lipids circulating in the blood: cholesterol and triglycerides.
When “bad” cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) and triglycerides in the blood reach very high levels, the risk of atherosclerosis and partial or total obstruction of cardiac and cerebral blood flow increases. Dyslipidemia is, therefore, one of the main risk factors for atherosclerosis, which represents the main cause of death in developed countries, including Portugal. This is due to its association with cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases such as acute myocardial infarctions and strokes (strokes).
The main causes of dyslipidemia are: a diet rich in fats and poor in fiber and vegetables, obesity, physical inactivity, insulin resistance (obese and diabetic patients), hypothyroidism (endocrinological problems), as well as genetic / family factors.
In a person with dyslipidemia, a clinical and laboratory evaluation should be carried out to screen for secondary causes of dyslipidemia and comorbidities, namely, blood pressure, body mass index or other parameter of obesity, blood glucose, kidney function, liver function and thyroid function.
The therapeutic approach of dyslipidemia has as its fundamental objective the reduction of cardiovascular risk.