Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease, which can have several causes and which results from several pathophysiological changes that lead to permanent elevation of blood glucose (blood sugar concentration).
There are several types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, in which the pancreas stops producing insulin, being diagnosed mainly in children and young adults; in type 2 diabetes, which affects older people, the pancreas continues to produce insulin, but in insufficient quantities or the body is unable to use it properly. This type of diabetes is closely associated with being overweight or obese. Another form of diabetes is gestational diabetes, whose specialized diagnosis and treatment is essential to avoid maternal and fetal complications.
Diabetes manifests itself with several signs and symptoms, which should alert doctors and patients to this diagnostic hypothesis, namely: increased urination and excessive thirst, lack of energy or weight loss. Other symptoms include: constant hunger, sudden weight loss, slow healing wounds and recurrent infections
Adequate and specialized treatment is associated with better prevention of diabetes complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, myocardial infarction, stroke, amputations and premature death.
The individualized approach is essential for the successful follow-up of people with diabetes. The adoption of a healthy lifestyle, with the practice of regular physical exercise and adequate nutrition, is a fundamental component not only in the treatment, but also in the prevention of diabetes.